New sets are created with
GNUNET_SET_create. Both the local peer’s
configuration (as each set has its own client connection) and the
operation type must be specified. The set exists until either the client
GNUNET_SET_destroy or the client’s connection to the service
is disrupted. In the latter case, the client is notified by the return
value of functions dealing with sets. This return value must always be
Elements are added and removed with
Listeners are created with
GNUNET_SET_listen. Each time time a
remote peer suggests a set operation with an application id and
operation type matching a listener, the listener’s callback is invoked.
The client then must synchronously call either
GNUNET_SET_reject. Note that the operation will not be started until
the client calls
GNUNET_SET_commit (see Section "Supplying a
Operations to be initiated by the local peer are created with
GNUNET_SET_prepare. Note that the operation will not be started
until the client calls
GNUNET_SET_commit (see Section "Supplying a
Supplying a Set#
To create symmetry between the two ways of starting a set operation
(accepting and initiating it), the operation handles returned by
GNUNET_SET_prepare do not yet have a set
to operate on, thus they can not do any work yet.
The client must call
GNUNET_SET_commit to specify a set to use for
GNUNET_SET_commit may only be called once per set
The Result Callback#
Clients must specify both a result mode and a result callback with
GNUNET_SET_prepare. The result callback
with a status indicating either that an element was received, or the
operation failed or succeeded. The interpretation of the received
element depends on the result mode. The callback needs to know which
result mode it is used in, as the arguments do not indicate if an
element is part of the full result set, or if it is in the difference
between the original set and the final set.
The SET Client-Service Protocol#
For each set of a client, there exists a client connection to the
service. Sets are created by sending the
message over a new client connection. Multiple operations for one set
are multiplexed over one client connection, using a request id supplied
by the client.
Each listener also requires a separate client connection. By sending the
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_LISTEN message, the client notifies the service
of the application id and operation type it is interested in. A client
rejects an incoming request by sending
the listener’s client connection. In contrast, when accepting an
incoming request, a
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_ACCEPT message must be sent
over the set that is supplied for the set operation.
Operations with remote peers are initiated by sending a
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_EVALUATE message to the service. The client
connection that this message is sent by determines the set to use.
Sets are modified with the
Results and Operation Status#
The service notifies the client of result elements and success/failure
of a set operation with the
All elements of a set can be requested by sending
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_ITER_REQUEST. The server responds with
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_ITER_ELEMENT and eventually terminates the
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_ITER_DONE. After each received
element, the client must send
GNUNET_SERVICE_SET_ITER_ACK. Note that
only one set iteration may be active for a set at any given time.
The SET Intersection Peer-to-Peer Protocol#
The intersection protocol operates over CADET and starts with a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_P2P_OPERATION_REQUEST being sent by the peer initiating the operation to the peer listening for inbound requests. It includes the number of elements of the initiating peer, which is used to decide which side will send a Bloom filter first.
The listening peer checks if the operation type and application identifier are acceptable for its current state. If not, it responds with a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_RESULT and a status of GNUNET_SET_STATUS_FAILURE (and terminates the CADET channel).
If the application accepts the request, the listener sends back a
GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_INTERSECTION_P2P_ELEMENT_INFO if it has more
elements in the set than the client. Otherwise, it immediately starts
with the Bloom filter exchange. If the initiator receives a
GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_INTERSECTION_P2P_ELEMENT_INFO response, it
beings the Bloom filter exchange, unless the set size is indicated to be
zero, in which case the intersection is considered finished after just
the initial handshake.
The Bloom filter exchange#
In this phase, each peer transmits a Bloom filter over the remaining
keys of the local set to the other peer using a
GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_INTERSECTION_P2P_BF message. This message
additionally includes the number of elements left in the sender’s set,
as well as the XOR over all of the keys in that set.
The number of bits ‘k’ set per element in the Bloom filter is calculated based on the relative size of the two sets. Furthermore, the size of the Bloom filter is calculated based on ‘k’ and the number of elements in the set to maximize the amount of data filtered per byte transmitted on the wire (while avoiding an excessively high number of iterations).
The receiver of the message removes all elements from its local set that
do not pass the Bloom filter test. It then checks if the set size of the
sender and the XOR over the keys match what is left of its own set. If
they do, it sends a
back to indicate that the latest set is the final result. Otherwise, the
receiver starts another Bloom filter exchange, except this time as the
Bloomfilter operations are probabilistic: With some non-zero probability the test may incorrectly say an element is in the set, even though it is not.
To mitigate this problem, the intersection protocol iterates exchanging Bloom filters using a different random 32-bit salt in each iteration (the salt is also included in the message). With different salts, set operations may fail for different elements. Merging the results from the executions, the probability of failure drops to zero.
The iterations terminate once both peers have established that they have sets of the same size, and where the XOR over all keys computes the same 512-bit value (leaving a failure probability of 2-511).
The SET Union Peer-to-Peer Protocol#
The SET union protocol is based on Eppstein’s efficient set reconciliation without prior context. You should read this paper first if you want to understand the protocol.
Link to Eppstein’s paper!
The union protocol operates over CADET and starts with a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_P2P_OPERATION_REQUEST being sent by the peer initiating the operation to the peer listening for inbound requests. It includes the number of elements of the initiating peer, which is currently not used.
The listening peer checks if the operation type and application
identifier are acceptable for its current state. If not, it responds
GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_RESULT and a status of
GNUNET_SET_STATUS_FAILURE (and terminates the CADET channel).
If the application accepts the request, it sends back a strata estimator using a message of type GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_UNION_P2P_SE. The initiator evaluates the strata estimator and initiates the exchange of invertible Bloom filters, sending a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_UNION_P2P_IBF.
During the IBF exchange, if the receiver cannot invert the Bloom filter or detects a cycle, it sends a larger IBF in response (up to a defined maximum limit; if that limit is reached, the operation fails). Elements decoded while processing the IBF are transmitted to the other peer using GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_P2P_ELEMENTS, or requested from the other peer using GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_P2P_ELEMENT_REQUESTS messages, depending on the sign observed during decoding of the IBF. Peers respond to a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_P2P_ELEMENT_REQUESTS message with the respective element in a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_P2P_ELEMENTS message. If the IBF fully decodes, the peer responds with a GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_UNION_P2P_DONE message instead of another GNUNET_MESSAGE_TYPE_SET_UNION_P2P_IBF.
All Bloom filter operations use a salt to mingle keys before hashing them into buckets, such that future iterations have a fresh chance of succeeding if they failed due to collisions before.